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Table 1 Self-reported associated factors for recurrent non-specific low back pain (n = 532)

From: Differences in personal and lifestyle characteristics among Zimbabwean high school adolescents with and without recurrent non-specific low back pain: a two part cross-sectional study

Variable LBP (%) No LBP (%) Χ 2 (1) P value
School bag use
 Yes 151 (98.7) 374 (98.7) 0.00 0.99
 No 2 (1.3) 5 (1.3)   
 Total 153 379   
Perceptions of bag weight
 Average 60 (39.7) 153 (40.9) 0.06 0.80
 Heavy 72 (47.7) 41 (11) 85.9 <0.001
 Light 19 (12.6) 180 (48.1) 57.7 <0.001
 Total 151 374   
Duration of carriage
 <5 min 8 (5.3) 77 (20.6) 18.5 <0.001
 5–10 min 14 (9.3) 81 (21.7) 11.1 <0.001
 11–20 min 19 (12.6) 74 (19.8) 3.83 0.05
 21–30 min 49 (32.5) 78 (20.9) 5.70 0.02
 >30 min 61 (40.4) 64 (17.1) 32.2 <0.001
 Total 151 374   
Method of carriage
 Hands 27 (17.9) 74 (19.8) 0.25 0.62
 Back 68 (45) 152 (40.6) 0.85 0.36
 Shoulders 56 (37.1) 148 (39.6) 0.28 0.60
 Total 151 374   
Sports participation
 Yes 50 (32.7) 167 (44.1) 5.85 0.02
 No 103 (63.7) 212 (55.1)   
 Total 153 379   
Weekly sport duration
 <2 hrs 24 (48) 16 (9.6) 37.8 <0.001
 2–4 hrs 14 (28) 36 (21.6) 0.9 0.34
 5–6 hrs 8 (16) 55 (32.9) 5.36 0.02
 7–10 hrs 2 (4) 55 (32.9)   <0.001*
 >10 hrs 2 (4) 5 (3.0)   0.66*
 Total 50 167   
Current smokers
 Yes 4 (2.6) 13 (3.4) 0.23 0.63
 No 149 (97.4) 366 (96.6)   
 Total 153 379   
Time spent sitting/day
 <2 hrs 14 (9.2) 61 (16.1) 4.34 0.04
 3–4 hrs 47 (30.7) 23 (60.9) 39.9 <0.001
 5–6 hrs 70 (45.8) 43 (11.3) 77.1 <0.001
 7–10 hrs 20 (13.1) 33 (8.7) 2.32 0.13
 >10 hrs 2 (1.3) 11 (2.9) 1.16 0.28
 Total 153 379
  1. *Fisher exact two tailed test