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Table 2 Psychometric properties of the neck disability index

From: Patient-reported outcome measures for non-specific neck pain validated in the Italian-language: a systematic review

Authors, year (language) Population Sample size Dimensionality Internal consistency Reliability Validity Responsiveness
Distribution-based methods Anchor-based methods
Hains et al, 1998 (English) [53] NP 237 1 factor α = .92 rp = .65 VAS-P
Stratford et al, 1999 (English) [54] NP 50 1 factor α = .87 ICC = .94 (1-sided lower 95 % CI .87) r = .70 prognostic ratings of change MDC = 4.7 points SEM = 2 points MCID = 5 points AUC = .90 (Spec .80; Sens .78)
Chok & Gomez, 2000 (Malaysian) [26] NP 22 k = .90
Ackelman & Lindgren, 2002 (Swedish) [27] Chronic NP >3 months 39 rs = .94–.99 rs = .95 DRI rs = -.88 SF-36 PF subscale rs = .86 VAS-A rs = .60 VAS-P
Wlodyka-Demaille et al, 2002 (French) [28] Neck disorders >15 days 101 2 factors: Function and disability; Neck pain ICC = .93 rs = .88 NPQ rs = .79 NPDS rs = .54 HADS-D rs = .50 VAS-D rs = .48 VAS-P rs = .43 HADS-A rs = -.41 ROM (Flex-Ext)
Wlodyka-Demaille et al, 2004 (French) [75] Neck disorders >15 days 71 ES = .55 SRM = .55
Lee et al, 2006 (Korean) [29] NP 180 α = .92 ICC2,1 = .90 (95 % CI .81–.94) ES = 1.04 (84 % CI .94–1.13) SRM = 1.17 (84 % CI 1.06–1.28) AUC = .79 (95 % CI .72–.86)
Vos et al, 2006 (Dutch) [30] First time or recurrent NP 79 ICC = .90 (95 % CI .82–.95) LoA = -7.40 - + 7.92 MDC = 1.66 points SEM = 0.60 points Guyatt = 1.82  
Gay et al, 2007 (English) [59] NP >3 months 23 α = .72–.77 rs = .77–.80 NBQ rs = .44–.45 VAS-P ES = 1.12 SRM = 1.21
Kose et al, 2007 (Turkish) [31] NP >6 weeks 102 α = .90 ICC = .86 r = .71 VAS-D r = .65 VAS-P r = .58 Pain with palpation r = .50 Pain with motion r = -.41 ROM (Flex-Ext) r = -.41 ROM (Rot) SRM = .85–.86
Mousavi et al, 2007 (Iranian) [32] NP 185 α = .88 ICC = .97 rp = .86 NPDS rp = .71 VAS-P rp = -.70–-.36 SF-36 subscales
Pool et al, 2007 (Dutch) [63] NP and/or stiffness >2 weeks 183 MDC = 10.5 points MCID = 3.5 points (Spec .70; Sens .90)
Cleland et al, 2008 (English) [60] NP 138 ICC2,1 = .50 (95 % CI .51–.87) rp = .56 MDC = 19.6 points SEM = 8.4 points MCID = 9.5 points (Spec .72; Sens .83) AUC = .83 (95 % CI .75–.90)
Trouli et al, 2008 (Greek) [33] NP 65 1 factor α = .85 ICC = .93 (95 % CI.84–.97) MDC = 1.78 points SEM = .64 points
Chan et al, 2009 (English) [74] Chronic NP 20 rp = .86 NPDS rp = .62 PET
Telci et al, 2009 (Turkish) [36] Chronic NP 88 ICC = .98 (CI 95 % = .97–.99) rp = .62 VAS-P rp = .73 NPDS
van der Velde et al, 2009 (English) [57] Mechanical NP 521 RA: unidimensionality is achieved by removing items #3 lifting, and #5 headache NDI-8: rs = .42 Pain
Young et al, 2009 (English) [61] Mechanical NP 91 ICC2,1 = .64 (95 % CI.19–.84) MDC = 10.2 points SEM = 4.3 points MCID = 7.5 points AUC = .79 (95 % CI .68-.89)
Andrade Ortega et al, 2010 (Spanish) [34] NP 175 1 factor α = .89 ICC = .98 (95 % CI.98–.99) rp = .89 NPQ rp = .65 VAS-P
Jorritsma et al, 2010 (Dutch) [70] NP >3 months 32 ICC = .84 (95 % CI.69–.92 LoA = ±6.5
Salo et al, 2010 (Finnish) [37] NP 101 1 factor α = .85 ICC = .94 (95 % CI.90–.96) rp = .53 VAS-P rp = .43 DEPS
Wu et al, 2010 (Chinese) [38] NP >3 months 125 α = .89 ICC = .95 rp = .81 NPDS rp = -.76 to -.33 SF-36 subscales rp = .75 VAS-P
Odole et al, 2011 (Nigerian) [35] Mechanical NP 32 r = .97
Pickering et al, 2011 (English) [55] Mechanical NP 88 1 factor: NP and dysfunction related to activities
Shakil et al, 2011 (Hindi) [39] NP 148 α = .99 ICC = .98
Uthaikhup et al, 2011 (Thai) [40] NP 181 1 factor α = .85 ICC = .85 rs = .64 VAS-P MDC = 16.1 points SEM = 5.8 points
Monticone et al, 2012 (Italian) [21] Chronic NSNP >12 weeks 101 2 factors: activity of daily living (F#1), pain and concentration (F#2) α = .84 F#1: α = .82 F#2: α = .72 ICC = .85 (95 % CI.78–.89) F#1: ICC = .81 (95 % CI .73–.87) F#2: ICC = .83 (95 % CI .76–.88) rs = .69 NPDS rs = .55 HADS-D rs = .44 NRS rs = .42 HADS-A MDC = 3 points F#1: MDC = 1 F#2: MDC = 1
Kesiktas et al, 2012 (Turkish) [41] NP 30/185 1 factor α = .88 ICC = .87–1.0 rs = .76 VAS-D rs = .62 HADS-D rs = .60 VAS-P rs = .58 HADS-A
Jorritsma et al, 2012a (Dutch) [62] Chronic NP 125 α = .83 rp = .77 NPDS rp = -.63–.34 SF-36 subscales rp = .52 VAS-D rp = .43 VAS-P
Jorritsma et al, 2012b (Dutch) [64] Chronic NP 125 MDC: 8.4 points SEM: 3.0 points MCID: 3.5 points (Spec .66; Sens .74) AUC = .75 (95 % CI .64–.87)
Nakamaru et al, 2012 (Japanese) [43] NP (acute, subacute and chronic) 110 2 factors: activities, symptoms α = .88 ICC = .91 (95 % CI.82–.85) rp = -.51–.25 SF-36 subscales MDC = 6.8 points SEM = 2.9 points
Luksanapruksa et al, 2012 (Thai) [42] Outpatients with NP 46 1 factor (activities) α = .92 ICC = .99 rP = .89 VAS-P rP = -.43 SF-36
Ailliet et al, 2013 (Dutch) [44] NP 338 RA: unidimensionality is achieved by removing item #6 concentration rp = .75 DASH
Guzy et al, 2013 (Polish) [45] NSNP >7 weeks 95 2 factors α = .82 F#1: α = .77 F#2: α = .73 ICC = .99 (95 % CI.98–.99) LoA = ±2.48 rp = .55 VAS-P MDC = 5.96 points SEM = 2.15 points SRM = 1.61 MCID = 6.5 points (Spec .81; Sens.90) AUC = .91 (95 % CI .84–.97)
Johansen et al, 2013 (Norwegian) [46] NP 249 RA: unidimensionality is achieved by removing items #1 pain, #5 headache, and #9 sleep rp = .59 HSCL rp = .58 NRS NDI-7: rp = .56 NRS rp = .43 TSK NDI-7: rp = .54 HSCL
Shaheen et al, 2013 (Arabic) [47] Neck complaints 65 2 factors: activity of daily living (F#1); pain and concentration (F#2) α = .89 F#1: α = .86 F#2: α = .77 ICC2,1 = .96 (95 % CI .93–.97) F#1: ICC2,1 = .86 (95 % CI .52–.79) F#2: ICC2,1 = .77 (95 % CI .66–.85) rp = .92
Walton & MacDermid, 2013 (English) [58] Mechanical NP 316 RA: unidimensionality is achieved by removing items #1 pain, #3 lifting, #4 reading, #5 headache, and #9 sleep ICC2,1 = .92 (95 % CI 85–.96) NDI-5: ICC2,1 = .94 (95 % CI.83–.86) rp = .71 NRS rp = .64 PCS rp = .53 TSK NDI-5: rp = .71 PCS NDI-5: rp = .67 NPRS NDI-5: rp = .54 TSK MDC90 = 4.5 points SEM = 1.95 points ES = .71 NDI-5: MDC90 = 2.7 points SEM = 1.15 points ES = .85 AUC = .76 (95 % CI .63–.89) NDI-5: AUC = .72 (95 % CI .59–.86)
Cramer et al, 2014 (German) [48] Chronic NSNP >12 weeks 558 1 factor α = .81 ICC = .81 (95 % CI.78–.83) rs = -.45–-0.30 SF-36 subscales
Johansen et al, 2014 (Norwegian) [89] NP 255 α = .83–.91 ICC = .84 (95 % CI.72–.91) MDC = 6.15 points SEM = 4.44 points MCID = 8.3 points AUC = .70 (95 % CI .58–.82)
Swanenburg et al, 2014 (German) [52] Outpatients with NP 49 2 factors α = .96 ICC(2,1) = .92 (95 % CI.84–.96) rs = .55 VAS-P MDC = 6.16 points SEM = 2.22 points
Hung et al, 2015 (English) [56] Neck complaints 865 RA: unidimensionality is achieved by removing items #2 personal care, and #5 headache
Ailliet et al, 2015 (Dutch) [90] NP 337 ICC = .88 LoA = -5.02– + 5.60 MDC = 5.40 points SEM = 1.95 points MCID = 4.50 points AUC = .85
Cruz, 2015 (Portuguese) [49] Chronic NP (for at least 3 months) 113 1 factor α = .95 ICC = .91 (95 % CI.87–.94) LoA = 1.59 ± 3.70 rs = .49 NRS
Joseph et al, 2015 (Marathi) [50] NP > 3 months 81 α = .97 ICC = .95 r = .95 VAS-P
Monticone et al, 2015 (Italian) [24] Outpatients with chronic NP 200 ES = .66 SRM = 1.09 GRI = .70 MCID = 3.5 points AUC = .96 (spec .81; sens .98)
Bakhtadze et al, 2015 (Russian) [51] Acute (≤12 weeks) or chronic (≥12 week) NP 80/109 2 factors α = .83 F#1: α = .82 F#2: α = .66 ICC = .91 (95 % CI.86–.94) rs = .62 GRS-P MDC = 5.4 points  
Pereira et al, 2015 (Portuguese) [91] Chronic NP 108 MDC95 = 12 points SEM = 4.27 points MCID = 5.5 points AUC = .59 (spec .57; sens .61)
  1. α Cronbach’s alpha, AUC area under the curve, CI confidence interval, DASH disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand questionnaire, DEPS depression scale, DRI disability rating index, ES effect size, Est extension, Flex flexion, GRI Guyatt’s responsiveness Index, GRS-P 11-point numerical graphic rating scale for pain, HADS-A hospital anxiety and depression scale of anxiety, HADS-D hospital anxiety and depression scale of depression, HSCL Hopkins symptom checklist–25, ICC intraclass correlation coefficient, k Cohen's kappa, LoA limits of agreement, MCID minimal clinically important difference, MDC minimal detectable change, MDC 90 minimal detectable change at the 90 % confidence level, MDC 95 minimal detectable change at the 95 % confidence level, NBQ neck Bournemouth questionnaire, NDI neck disability index, NP neck pain, NPDS neck pain and disability scale, NPQ northwick park questionnaire, NRS numeric rating scale, PCS pain catastrophizing scale, PET problem elicitation technique, r correlation coefficient, r p Pearson correlation coefficient, r s Spearman correlation coefficient, RA Rasch analysis, ROM range of motion, Rot rotation, SEM standard error of measurement, Sens sensitivity, SF-36 PF subscale the medical outcomes study 36-item short-form health survey physical functioning subscale, Spec specificity, SRM standardized response mean, TSK tampa scale for kinesiophobia, VAS-A visual analogue scale for activity, VAS-D visual analogue scale for disability, VAS-P visual analogue scale for pain