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Table 5 Psychometric properties of the core outcome measure index

From: Patient-reported outcome measures for non-specific neck pain validated in the Italian-language: a systematic review

Authors, year (language) Population Sample size Dimensionality Internal consistency Reliability Validity Responsiveness
Distribution-based methods Anchor-based methods
White et al., 2004 (English) [81] Chronic mechanical NP 133 Single items: ICC = .64–.99 Pain: r = .73 VAS-P
Other items: r = .60 NDI
Kovacs et al, 2008 (Spanish) [82] Acute, subacute and chronic NP 167 Pain: α = .73
Disability: α = .84
ICC = .85
(95 % CI .75–.91)
rp = .61 VAS-P
rp = .46 VAS-referred P
rp = .57 CSQ
rp = .69 NDI
rp = .71 NPQ
rp = -.60 SF-12 PF
Pain: ES = .79
Disability ES = .92
Miekisiak et al, 2014 (Polish) [83] NP
>4 weeks
123 1 factor ICC = .88
(95 % CI .82–.92)
rs = .62 NDI MDC = 2/10 points
SEM = .7/10 points
Monticone et al, 2014 (Italian) [22] Chronic NP >3 months 103 ICC = .87
(95 % CI .81–.91)
Pain: rp = .45 NRS
Pain: rp = .48 NPDS
Function: rp = .49–.55 NPDS
QoL: rp = -.44 EQ-5D
Disability: rp = .45–.48 NPDS
MDC = 1.8/10 points
SEM = .65/10 points
SRM = 1.23
AUC: .73 (.62–.85) (Sens = .55; Spec = .88)
  1. α Cronbach’s alpha, AUC area under the curve, CI confidence interval, CSQ coping strategies questionnaire, EQ-5d Euroqol 5-dimensions, ES effect size, ICC intraclass correlation coefficient, MDC minimum detectable change, NDI neck disability index, NP neck pain, NPDS neck pain and disability scale, NPQ northwick park questionnaire, NRS numeric rating scale, QoL quality of life, r correlation coefficient, r p Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r s Sperman’s correlation coefficient, SEM standard error of measurement, Sens sensitivity, SF-12 PF 12-item short-form health survey physical functioning subscale, Spec specificity, SRM standardized response mean, VAS-P visual analogue scale for pain