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Table 1 Diagnostic accuracy of tests

From: How to diagnose cervicogenic dizziness

Test Diagnosis Sensitivity (%) Specificity (%) PV+ (%) PV- (%) LR+ LR- Reference
Canadian C-Spine Rule Cervical Spine Trauma 99 45 6.03 100 1.81 0.01 Stiell et al. [36]; Duane et al. [37]
Cervical Arterial Dysfunction (CAD) Test CAD 0–57 87–100 0–100 26–96 0.22–83.3 0.44–1.4 Hutting et al. [22]; Petersen et al. [38]
Sharp Purser Test Transverse Ligament Stability 69 96 85 90 15.6 0.33 Uitvlugt & Indenbaum [39]; Hutting et al. [40]
Alar Ligament Test Alar Ligament Stability Right: 69 Left: 72 Right: 100 Left: 96 Right: 100 Left: 93 Right: 80 Left: 81 Kaale et al. [41]
Dix-Hallpike Posterior Canal BPPV 79.3 75 95.8 33.3 3.17 0.14 Halker et al. [42]
Head Thrust Test Unilateral Vestibular Hypofunction 71 (88 for complete loss) 82 87 65 4.16 0.3 Schubert et al. [43]
Manual Spinal Examination Cervical Facet Joint Dysfunction 92 71 3.17 0.11 Schneider et al. [30]
Palpation for Segmental Tenderness Cervical Facet Joint Mediated Pain 94 73 3.48 0.08 Schneider et al. [30]
Cervical Neck Torsion Test Cervicogenic Dizziness (versus BPPV) 72 92 9 0.3 L’Heureux-Leabeau et al. [14]
Cervical Relocation Test (with positive test defined by any of the 4 positions with JPE >4.5°) Cervicogenic Dizziness (versus BPPV) 92 54 2 0.15 L’Heureux-Leabeau et al. [14]
Cervical Relocation Test (with positive test defined by mean JPE >4.5°) Cervicogenic Dizziness (versus BPPV) 72 75 2.9 0.37 L’Heureux-Leabeau et al. [14]
Smooth Pursuit Neck Torsion (SPNT) Test CGD in people with WAD and dizziness 90 27 56 91 55 88 92 -- -- 71 -- -- 10 0.6 -- 0.11 1.3 -- L’Heureux-Leabeau et al. [14] Tjell & Rosenhall [34] Kongsted et al. [35]