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Table 1 Contingency table between a clinical condition and clinical index test result

From: Questioning the “SPIN and SNOUT” rule in clinical testing

Test result Cinical condition 1 0  
+ d1 d0 d = n+
h1 h0 h = n
  n1 n0 n
  1. ‘True positives’ = d1 = the patient has the clinical condition [1] and the clinical test is positive (+)
  2. ‘False positives’ = d0 = the patient does not have the clinical condition (0) but the clinical test is positive (+)
  3. ‘True negatives’ = h0 = the patient does not have the clinical condition (0) and the clinical test is negative (−)
  4. ‘False negatives’ = h1 = the patient has the clinical condition [1] and the clinical test is negative (−)
  5. d = sum of ‘True Positives’ & ‘False Positives’
  6. h = sum of ‘True negatives’ & ‘false negatives’