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Table 3 Results of primary and secondary outcomes on each assessed time point in both groups, changes (n = 10 in each group)

From: Preoperative exercise in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty: a pilot randomized controlled trial

Measure Baseline t-test Preoperative Postoperative
IG CG   IG CG IG CG
Mean (SD)
Min-Max
Mean (SD)
Min-Max
p Mean (SD)
Min-Max
Mean (SD)
Min-Max
Mean (SD)
Min-Max
Mean (SD)
Min-Max
Stair Climbing Test (sec) 12.37 (3.74)
6.58–18.26
13.54 (7.35)
6.14–27.33
0.658 12.68 (5.00)
5.60–23.58
14.11 (9.19)
5.71–34.87
12.58 (4.64)
6.70–23.23
13.59 (5.30)
5.13–24.02
ROM (°) 113.30 (16.99)
90–135
120.60 (15.43)
80–135
0.328 116.70 (13.24)
95–135
116.20 (17.39) 70–134 100.50 (18.65)
60–120
103.5 (13.69)
90–128
Lysholm Score (all items) 53.50 (21.59)
26–90
59.00 (13.59)
41–84
0.504 70.70 (20.21)
30–97
54.80 (18.52)
13–83
87.10 (9.04)
72–100
69.11 (14.87)
52–96
Lysholm Score (only pain) 10.50 (7.25)
0–20
9.50 (4.38)
5–15
0.713 13.00 (10.06)
0–25
9.00 (6.15)
0–20
25.00 (0.00)
25–25
16.50 (9.14)
5–25
Tegner Activity Scale 2.50 (0.71)
1–3
2.10 (0.738)
1–3
0.232 3.10 (0.568)
2–4
2.00 (0.816)
1–3
3.80 (0.789)
3–5
2.50 (0.850)
1–4
PGIC    0.307    2.50 (2.17)
1–7
2.10 (1.45)
1–4
Length of stay in rehabilitation facility (weeks)    0.486    1.0 (1.49)
0–4
1.5 (1.64)
0–4
  1. Abbreviations: IG Intervention Group, CG Control Group, ROM Range of motion, PGIC Patients Global Impression of Change, SD Standard deviation
  2. Values given as Mean (SD) or range = Min-Max
  3. p = Independent t-test
  4. *significant p < 0.05