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Table 2 Descriptive characteristics of the included reviews. (n = 30)

From: Patients’ perceptions with musculoskeletal disorders regarding their experience with healthcare providers and health services: an overview of reviews

Review Systematic or scoping review Country Settings No. of studies Designs of the included studies Musculoskeletal disorder Outcomes
Verbeek, 2004 [50] Systematic review The Netherlands Not reported 20 12 qualitative, 8 quantitative Non-specific low back pain Relational and functional aspects
O’Neill, 2007 [40] Systematic review and meta-synthesis United Kingdom Hospitals, a church or a senior center, or orthopedic surgeons waiting lists 10 All 10 articles are qualitative studies. Four of the studies applied a Grounded Theory approach to analyze the data; four adopted a Content Analysis approach, one applied Interpretative Phenomenology and one Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Patients with osteoarthritis who either have already received total knee replacement or are on the waiting lists of knee replacement surgery or do not want to have surgery. Relational and functional aspects
Slade, 2010 [23] Systematic review United Kingdom Not reported 11 Not reported Low back pain Relational and functional aspects
Campbell, 2011 [44] Systematic review United Kingdom Not reported 17 7 cohort studies, 10 cross-sectional studies Non-specific spinal pain Relational and functional aspects
Hush, 2011 [51] Systematic review and meta-analysis Australia Private clinics, hospital outpatient clinics, spine clinics, and an athlete rehabilitation clinic 15 9 cross-sectional patient surveys, 2 clinical trials, 1 longitudinal cohort study, and 3 qualitative studies Seven studies investigated patients with mixed musculoskeletal or soft tissue injuries, 6 studies investigated patients with back pain, and one study investigated athletes with lower-limb injuries. Relational and functional aspects
Doyle, 2013 [10] Systematic review United Kingdom Primary and secondary care including hospitals and primary care centers. 55 15 systematic reviews/meta-analysis, 40 individual studies Varied (cardiac, cancer, diabetes, pulmonary, acute, hypertension, chronic, pain, mental health, general, other) Relational and functional aspects
Hopayian, 2014 [47] Scoping review United Kingdom Spinal triage service, general practice, pain clinic, back clinic (osteopath and acupuncturist), physiotherapy, X-ray department, physiotherapy, and acute care services, chiropractic, university campus, community, back pain rehabilitation 28 Qualitative studies, mixed-method studies, questionnaire surveys using open questions to collect and interpret data qualitatively, and qualitative studies that were parallel to or imbedded in trials or observational studies. Low back pain, sciatica Relational and functional aspects
Slade, 2014 [49] Systematic review and meta-analysis United Kingdom Not reported 15 15 qualitative studies Chronic non-specific chronic low back pain Relational and functional aspects
Zuidema, 2015 [38] Scoping review The Netherlands and Belgium Not reported 17 Cross-sectional studies, and a single group longitudinal design Rheumatoid arthritis Relational and functional aspects
Fu, 2016 [37] Systematic review United Kingdom Not reported 10 Not reported Chronic back pain Relational and functional aspects
O’Keeffe, 2016 [41] Systematic review and meta-synthesis Ireland and Australia Not reported 13 5 used semi-structured interview, 5 used focus group, 1 used Cross-case analysis/interview, 1 used nominal group technique interview, and 1 used mixed-methods Patients with subacute, chronic, non-specific or intermittent low back pain, neck pain, or musculoskeletal conditions. Physical therapists working in primary care, for patients who have undergone torture or specializing in Norwegian psychomotor physical therapy Relational and functional aspects
McMurray, 2016 [48] Systematic review Canada Outpatient rehabilitative care, inpatient rehabilitative care hospital, rehabilitation in acute care hospitals and hospital to the community 33 14 used a quantitative method, 2 used survey, 10 used Cross-sectional, 4 used mixed methods, 1 used comparative psychometric testing, 1 used randomized controlled trial and 1 is a descriptive, structured literature review. Heterogeneous, described as those characterized by issues with musculoskeletal disorders, stroke/neurology, frail/older adults and medical complexity, multiple sclerosis, occupation-related musculoskeletal disorders, cardiopulmonary disorders, or rheumatologic disorders or were discharged patients, inpatients, patients with stroke and their caregivers, patients and their physicians, patients, patients receiving unspecified rehabilitative care, or amputees Relational and functional aspects
Wluka, 2016 [54] Scoping review Australia Not reported 323 Not reported Inflammatory arthritis specifically rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, back pain, neck pain, and osteoporosis Relational and functional aspects
Chou, 2017 [21] Scoping review Australia Rheumatology clinics, outpatient screening unit at a teaching hospital, fracture clinic of a large teaching hospital, health maintenance organization, centers performing bone densitometry, outpatient clinics in osteoporosis centers, emails, advertisements in a tertiary hospital medical center newsletter, National Osteoporosis Society support groups, osteoporosis exercise classes, South Asian community centers, urban fracture clinic, academic primary care sites 33 19 studies used quantitative methods, 14 used qualitative methods Osteoporosis (patients were classified as having osteoporosis based on bone densitometry in 7 studies, requiring prescription medications in 6 studies or based on previous fragility fractures or high risk of osteoporotic fractures in 8 studies. The diagnosis of osteoporosis or osteopenia was unspecified in 13 studies) Relational and functional aspects
Papandony, 2017 [22] Scoping review Australia Public and private hospitals, acupuncture clinics, pharmacies, outpatient orthopedic clinic at local hospital, private general practice clinic, retirement, own home, primary care community clinics, solo practitioners’ walk-in clinics, hospital-based family medicine units, participants from long-term studies, ambulatory care clinic, regional orthocenter, single surgeon practice, university medical center 21 9 studies used quantitative methods, including written questionnaires, computer questionnaires or interviews. 12 studies used qualitative methods including focus groups and individual interviews. 1 study employed both quantitative and qualitative methods with interviews, patient diaries, and group teaching sessions Osteoarthritis Relational and functional aspects
Wijma, 2017 [24] Systematic review Belgium and the Netherlands Private physiotherapy practices, health sciences center in a university, respondent’s or researcher’s workplace, home, onsite observation in an academic medical center, or national health service hospital; physiotherapy practices, rehab centers in various countries 14 4 used grounded theory; 1 used nominal group technique; 2 used ethnography; 1 used a descriptive qualitative approach; 1 used phenomenography; 2 used phenomenology; and 3 have no specific design Studies recruited participants not limited to patients with musculoskeletal disorders as well as therapists working in various fried of rehabilitation setting Relational and functional aspects
Hulen, 2017 [43] Systematic review United States Hospitals, rehab centers, clinics 22 Qualitative (N = 12), quantitative (N = 9) and mixed-methods (N = 1) designs Rheumatoid arthritis Relational and functional aspects
Gillespie, 2017 [46] Scoping review United Kingdom and Canada Pre-hospital care, acute medical ward, Medical Specialties, Obstetric Care, Hospital Care, geriatric care, General practice, Palliative care, Outpatient physiotherapy/ rehabilitation services, Outpatient physiotherapy/ rehabilitation services, Careers/Cancer service uses/ older people/ men’s health/ parents/ human immunodeficiency virus service users, Fertility clinic, Intensive care unit, Community hospice programs, Oncology, Primary care, Ambulatory care, Academic medical center, Psychiatric care, Lymphoma care, Geriatric ward, Palliative care, illicit drug users, regional hospital 44 Primary and secondary studies using qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods designs Not reported Relational and functional aspects
Chou, 2018 [19] Scoping review Australia Family care center in Memorial Hospital, general practitioner practices, outpatient clinics, chiropractic offices, physical therapy offices and departments, advertisements, community hospitals, rehab centers, pain centers, campus-wide emails and word of mouth, poster advertisements, senior centers, spinal clinics, and computerized databases 43 30 qualitative, 12 quantitative, and 1 mixed-methods Non-specific low back pain, with or without leg pain, excluding back pain from fractures, malignancy, infection, and inflammatory spinal disorders. Relational and functional aspects
Chou, 2018 [20] Scoping review Australia Hospitals, rehab centers, clinics 50 35 qualitative, 14 quantitative, 1 mixed-methods study Chronic low back pain Relational aspects
Chou, 2018 [25] Scoping review Australia Not reported 30 16 qualitative, 11 quantitative and 3 mixed-methods studies Osteoarthritis using American College of Rheumatology criteria in 3 studies, radiographic change and pain in 4 studies, self-report in 6 studies, chart review in 3 studies, clinical diagnosis in 4 studies, and by undefined methods in 8 studies Relational aspects
Segan, 2018 [26] Scoping review Australia Hospital outpatient rheumatology clinics, nurse-led university hospital clinics, medical centers, the United States of America National Psoriasis Foundation, private rheumatology clinics, patients obtained through internet and email, patients recruited from outpatient rheumatoid arthritis clinics from National Health Service trusts, patients recruited from members of the United Kingdom National Rheumatoid Arthritis Society, private practices, patients recruited from arthritis database, 27 16 qualitative, 9 quantitative, 2 mixed-methods Inflammatory arthritis Relational and functional aspects
Rothmann, 2018 [39] Systematic review and meta-synthesis Denmark and Australia Not reported 10 Individual interviews consisting of both face-to-face and telephone interviews (n = 9) and focus groups (n = 1). Osteoporosis & Individuals with at least one risk factor of osteoporosis & t-score ≤ − 2.5 or a fragility fracture & Individuals aged 45 years and above Relational aspects
Raybould, 2018 [45] Systematic review United Kingdom Secondary care populations, primary care, community, or mixed settings. 16 11 single semi-structured interviews and 6 focus groups Osteoporosis, vertebral fracture, osteopenia. Relational and functional aspects
Chou, 2018 [52] Scoping review Australia Not reported 44 25 qualitative, 18 quantitative and 1 mixed-methods study Low back pain Relational and functional aspects
Rossettini, 2018 [53] Systematic review and meta-synthesis Italy and Canada Rheumatology outpatient clinics, inpatient wards, disease registries or databases, hospital outpatient clinics, private or community rheumatology clinics, inpatient, outpatient, databases 11 Not reported Individuals experiencing musculoskeletal pain defined as the consequence of everyday
activities that repeatedly or unusually stress the system, or
due to either acute traumatic events or to chronic complaints
Relational and functional aspects
Lim, 2019 [36] Systematic review Australia Primary care practice, tertiary pain clinics, hospital or rehabilitation clinics, specialist spine or osteopathy clinics, general community, research centers, education forum, occupational health clinic 41 33 qualitative, 5 quantitative and 3 used mixed methods Non-specific low back pain, with or without leg pain, excluding back pain related to fractures, malignancy, infection, and inflammatory back conditions Relational and functional aspects
Connelly, 2019 [42] Systematic review Australia Hospitals, rehab centers, clinics 29 11 quantitative, 14 qualitative and 4 mixed methods Rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, and other types of unspecified inflammatory arthritis Relational and functional aspects
Asif, 2019 [55] Scoping review Canada Transitions of patients between settings (e.g., transfer of patient from an acute care facility to a nursing home, or rehabilitation to home) 11 Most included studies used a
qualitative design (n = 10), with only one quantitative study
Hip fracture Functional aspects
Davenport, 2019 [56] Systematic review United Kingdom Outpatient/community and an inpatient stay. 18 10 qualitative design, 1 convergent mixed methods design, 1 interpretive phenomenology, 1 focused ethnographic design, 5 did not state a theoretical approach Mixed, stroke (n = 3), head and neck cancer (n = 2), mixed rehabilitation (n = 2), various speech pathologies (n = 1), low back or neck pain (n = 7), jaw pain (n = 1), chronic fatigue/ myalgic encephalomyelitis (n = 1) and older adults post hip fracture (n = 1) Relational aspects