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Table 1 Effect decomposition for each single-mediator model

From: Causal mechanisms of a scapular stabilization intervention for patients with subacromial pain syndrome: a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial

Analysis Intervention-mediator effect (Path a) Mediator-outcome effect (Path b) ATE ADE ACME Proportion Mediated (%)
Pain
Scapular Position
 SUR 0° 0.01 (−1.9 to 2.9) 0.23 (0.02 to 0.45) −0.34 (− 1.89 to 1.24) − 0.36 (− 2 to 1.29) 0.02 (− 0.32 to 0.35) −0.05 (− 1.89 to 2)
 SAT 0° 0.07 (− 2.4 to 2.6) 0.01 (− 0.14 to 0.18) − 0.31 (− 1.85 to 1.44) −0.32 (− 1.9 to 1.4) 0.006 (− 0.26 to 0.37) −0.01 (− 1.23 to 1.96)
Scapular Motion
 SUR 90° 0.5 (− 3.2 to 3.3) −0.06 (− 0.18 to 0.05) −0.01 (− 0.3 to 0.12) −0.24 (− 1.82 to 1.48) −0.26 (− 1.84 to 1.49) 0.06 (−1.02 to 1.52)
 SUR 180° − 0.04 (− 4.8 to 4.7) −0.19 (− 0.28 to 0.1) −0.63 (− 2.4 to 1.9) −0.7 (− 2.26 to 1.18) 0.05 (− 0.32 to 0.30) −0.07 (− 0.07 to 2.32)
 SAT 90° − 0.16 (− 2.51 to 2.47) −0.13 (− 0.3 to 0.03) −0.25 (− 1.97 to 1.43) −0.26 (− 2 to 1.93) 0.01 (− 0.2 to 0.33) 0.004 (−1.5 to 2)
 SAT 180° 0.09 (− 4.2 to 4.4) 0.44 (− 0.35 to 0.53) −0.23 (− 2 to 1.47) −0.46 (− 2 to 1) 0.23 (− 0.17 to 1) −0.99 (− 4.3 to 3.91)
Muscle Strength
 SA 0.12 (− 1.5 to 1.6) −0.51 (− 0.73 to 0.02) −0.3 (− 1.8 to 1) −0.08 (− 1.57 to 1.24) −0.3 (− 1.4 to 1.4) 0.3 (− 3 to 4)
 UT 0.09 (−1.5 to 1.7) − 0.31 (− 0.55 to 0.06) −0.25 (− 0.2 to 0.2) −0.19 (− 0.3 to 0.7) −0.9 (− 0.1 to 0.09) 0.10 (− 0.41 to 0.9)
 MT −0.03 (− 0.68 to 0.7) −0.19 (− 0.28 to 0.1) −0.05 (− 1.65 to 1.4) −0.6(− 1.8 to 1.1) 0.36 (− 0.2 to 1.2) −0.10 (− 9.68 to 6.8)
 LT − 0.6 (− 0.69 to 0.8) −0.19 (− 0.28 to 0.1) −0.27 (− 1.79 to 1.2) −0.3 (− 1.89 to 0.89) 0.2 (− 0.27 to 0.71) −0.63 (− 3.88 to 4.59)
Shoulder Disability
Scapular Position
 SUR 0° 0.01 (−1.9 to 2) −0.04 (− 1.6 to 1.5) − 0.3 (− 2.2 to 3.3) −0.42 (− 2.27 to 1.32) 0.06 (− 0.35 to 0.64) 0.03 (−1.33 to 1.19)
 SAT 0° 0.07 (− 2.4 to 2.6) 0.19 (−1 to 1) 5 (− 6 to 16.2) 3 (− 6.16 to 14.9) 0.8 (− 1.6 to 5.3) 0.04 (− 1.55 to 1.97)
Scapular Motion
 SUR 90° 0.49 (−3 to 3.38) 0.19 (− 0.73 to 1.13) 6 (−6 to 10) 5 (− 6 to 14.36) 0.6 (− 3.4 to 4.59) 0.01 (− 1.6 to 2.41)
 SUR 180° −0.04 (− 4.8 to 4.7) − 0.14 (− 0.84 to 0.55) 4.6 (− 7 to 14) 4 (−8 to 13) 0.6 (− 1.88 to 5.3) 0.05 (− 1.55 to 1.97)
 SAT 90° −0.01 (− 2.55 to 2.24) 0.31 (− 0.17 to 2.47) 7 (− 5.5 to 16) 6.9 (− 5.5 to 16) 0.1 (− 3.3 to 2.73) 0.02 (− 1.97 to 2)
 SAT 180° 0.09 (− 4.2 to 4.4) 0.25 (− 0.44 to 0.96) 6 (− 5 to 16.3) 4 (−6 to 14) 1.08 (− 5.82 to 6.44) 0.07 (− 1.2 to 2)
Muscle Strength
 SA 0.12 (− 1.56 to 1.8) − 0.64 (− 2.2 to − 0.97)*** 1 (− 9.44 to 13) 0.15 (− 4 to 17) − 0.05 (− 2 to 1.67) − 0.05 (− 1 to 1.2)
 UT 0.09 (−1.5 to 1.6) − 0.44 (− 5 to − 1.3)** 2.86 (− 8 to 14) 5.1 (− 5.15 to 17.3) −2.3 (− 7 to 2) − 0.8 (− 9.78 to 12)
 MT − 0.03 (− 0.68 to 0.75) −0.42 (− 4.9 to − 0.2)* 0.25 (−5.79 to 6) 1 (− 10 to 12) −0.8 (− 4 to 2) − 3.2 (− 3.3 to 3)
 LT − 0.06 (− 0.69 to 0.8) −0.3 (− 4 to − 1)** −0.2 (− 5.79 to 6) 1 (− 10.8 to 13) − 1.1 (− 5 to 1) 0.5 (− 3.3 to 3)
  1. ATE Average total effect, ADE Average direct effect, ACME Average causal mediation effect, SUR Scapular upward rotation, SAT Scapular anterior tilt, SA Serratus anterior, UTS Upper trapezius, MT Middle trapezius, LT Lower trapezius
  2. Standardized coefficients with their 95% confidence intervals unless otherwise stated
  3. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001