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Table 3 Psychometric properties of the neck pain and disability scale

From: Patient-reported outcome measures for non-specific neck pain validated in the Italian-language: a systematic review

Authors, year (language) Population Sample size Dimensionality Internal consistency Reliability Validity Responsiveness
Distribution-based methods Anchor-based methods
Wheeler et al, 1999 (English) [65] NP 100 4 factors: neck problems; pain intensity; effect of neck pain on motion and cognition; neck pain interference with life activities α = .93 rp = .78 ODI rp = .80 PDI rp = .52 BDI
Goolkasian et al, 2002 (English) [73] NP 83 rp = .93 r = .59 Patient GAS r = .59 Physician GAS r = .74 PDI r = .72 NDI
Wlodyka-Demaille et al, 2002 (French) [28] NP >15 days 101 3 factors: function and disability; neck pain intensity during movement; static neck pain intensity ICC = .91 rs = .79 NDI rs = .73 NPQ rs = .63 VAS-D rs = .51 VAS-P rs = .40 HADS-A rs = .49 HADS-D rs = -.45 ROM (Flex-Ext)
Bicer et al, 2004 (Turkish) [69] NP >6 months 61 α = .86 Item to total correlation from .08 to .69 r = .51 PDI r = .45 VAS-P
Wlodyka-Demaille et al, 2004 (French) [75] NP >15 days 71 ES = .46 SRM = .38
Lee et al, 2006 (Korean) [29] NP 180 α = .96 ICC = .90(95 % CI .83–.95) ES = 1.07 SRM = 1.34 AUC = .79 (95 % CI 72–.86)
Kose et al, 2007 (Turkish) [31] NP >6 weeks 102 α = .94 ICC = .81 r = .40 Morning stiffness r = .73 VAS-P r = .69 VAS-D r = .46 VAS-Physician’s assessment r = .49 Pain with motion SRM = .89–.92
Mousavi et al, 2007 (Iranian) [32] NP 185 4 factors: neck dysfunction and disability (F#1), neck pain intensity (F#2), neck pain during movement (F#3), static neck pain problems (F#4) F#1: α = .94 F#2: α = .92 F#3: α = .84 F#4: α = .75 F#1: ICC = .95 F#2: ICC = .97 F#3: ICC = .92 F#4: ICC = .90 F#1: rp = -.69 to -.40 SF-36 subscales F#2: rp = -.57 to -.24 SF-36 subscales F#3: rp = -.54 to -.17 SF-36 subscales F#4: rp = -.63 to -.18 SF-36 subscales F#1: rp = .63 VAS-P F#2: rp = .77 VAS-P F#3: rp = .79 VAS-P F#4: rp = .46 VAS-P Total NPDS: rp = .86 NDI
Monticone et al, 2008 (Italian) [20] NP subacute (pain >4 weeks) and chronic (pain >12 weeks) 157 3 factors: neck dysfunction related to general activities (F#1), neck pain and cognitive-behavioral aspects (F#2), neck dysfunction related to activities of the cervical spine (F#3) Total NPDS: α = .94 F#1: α = .92 F#2: α = .86 F#3: α = .89 Total NPDS: rs = .91 F#1: rs = .89 F#2: rs = .93 F#3: rs = .92 rP = -.47 SF-36 rP = -.45 to -.17 SF-36 subscales
Scherer et al, 2008 (German) [67] NP 448 3 factors α = .94 Item-to-total correlation from .46 to .82 rp = .44 HADS-D rp = .41 HADS-A
Chan et al, 2009 (English) [74] NP 20 rp = .71 PET rp = .86 NDI
Jorritsma et al, 2010 (Dutch) [70] NP >3 months 33 ICC = .76 (95 % CI .57–.87) LoA: ±20.9
Wu et al, 2010 (Chinese) [38] NP >3 months 125 3 factors: neck disfunction and disability (F#1), neck pain intensity during movement (F#2), static neck pain intensity (F#3) F#1: α = .91 F#2: α = .88 F#3: α = .82 F#1: ICC = .94 F#2: ICC = .92 F#3: ICC = .86 Total NPDS: rp = .81 NDI F#1: rp = -.61 to -.20 SF-36 subscales F#2: rp = -.58 to -.19 SF-36 subscales F#3: rp = -.61 to -.22 SF-36 subscales F#1: rp = .72 VAS-P F#2: rp = .62 VAS-P F#3: rp = .76 VAS-P
Blozik et al, 2011 (German) [72] NP 411 MDC = 3 points SEM = .9 points SRM = 1.1
Chen et al, 2011 (Chinese) [68] NP >3 months 106 4 factors: pain (F#1), disability (F#2), Neck specific function (F#3), emotional and cognitive influences (F#4) Total NPDS: α = .97 F#1: α = .93 F#2: α = .95 F#3: α = .95 F#4: α = .91 Item-to-total correlation: from .68 to .88 Total NPDS: r = .81 F#1: r = .89 F#2: r = .97 F#3: r = .91 F#4: r = .94 Total NPDS: rp = -.72 SF-36 Total NPDS: rp = -.71 to -.12 SF-36 subscales F#1: rp = -.74 SF-36 F#1: rp = -.71 to -.05 SF-36 subscales F#2: rp = -.67 SF-36 F#2: rp = -.65 to -.14 SF-36 subscales F#3: rp = -.49 SF-36 F#3: rp = -.65 to -.04 SF-36 subscales F#4: rp = -.63 SF-36 F#4: rp = -.63 to -.12 SF-36 subscales
Ono et al, 2011 (Japanese) [71] NP 167 2 factors: neck-pain-related disability (F#1) and neck-related pain (F#2) Total NPDS α = .96 F#1: α = .94 F#2: α = .93 Total NDPS: ICC = .77 F#1: ICC = .75 F#2: ICC = .77 Total NPDS: rp = -.54 to -.24 SF-36 subscales F#1: rp = -.50 to -.24 SF-36 subscales F#2: rp = -.51 to -.22 SF-36 subscales Total NPDS: rp = .71 VAS-P F#1: rp = .56 VAS-P F#2: rp = .77 VAS-P Total NPDS: rp = .59 VAS-D F#1: rp = .48 VAS-D F#2: rp = .63 VAS-D
Pickering et al,, 2011 (English) [55] NP 88 3 factors: dysfunction related to general activities and the impact of participation restriction on psychosocial function; neck pain and interference with neck-specific function; cognitive and emotional functioning
Uthaikhup et al, 2011 (Thai) [40] NP 172 3 factors: disability (F#1), pain (F#2) neck specific function (F#3) Total NDPS: α = .96 F#1: α = .94 F#2: α = .90 F#3: α = .92 Total NDPS: ICC = .88 F#1: ICC = .81 F#2: ICC = .91 F#3: ICC = .74 Total NPDS: rs = .76 VAS-P F#1: rs = .74 VAS-P F#2: rs = .65 VAS-P F#3: rs = .61 VAS-P MDC = 21.8 points SEM = 7.9
Jorritsma et al, 2012a (Dutch) [62] NP 125 α = .93 Item-total correlations from .45 to .73 rp = -.70 to -.36 SF-36 subscales rp = .54 VAS-P rp = .57 VAS-D rp = .77 NDI
Jorritsma et al, 2012b (Dutch) [64] NP 125 MDC = 31.7 points SEM = 11.4 MCID = 11.5 points (Sens .74; Spec .70) AUC = .75 (95 % CI .62–.87)
Monticone et al, 2015 (Italian) [24] NP 200 ES = .73 SRM = 1.26 GRI = .73 MCID = 10 points AUC = .91 (Sens .93; Spec .83)
  1. α Cronbach’s alpha, AUC area under the curve, BDI Beck depression inventory, CI confidence interval, Flex flexion, ES effect size, Ext extension, GAS global assessment score, GRI Guyatt’s responsiveness index, HADS-A hospital anxiety and depression scale of anxiety, HADS-D hospital anxiety and depression scale of depression, ICC intraclass correlation coefficient, LoA limits of agreement, MCID minimal clinically important difference, MDC minimal detectable change, NDI neck disability index, NP neck pain, NPDS neck pain and disability scale, NPQ northwick park questionnaire, ODI oswestry disability index, PDI pain disability index, PET problem elicitation technique, r correlation coefficient, r p Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r s Spearman’s correlation coefficient, ROM range of motion, SEM standard error of measurement, Sens sensibility, SF-36 the medical outcomes study 36-item short-form health survey, Spec specificity, SRM standardized response mean, VAS-D visual analogue scale for disability, VAS-H visual analogue scale for global health, VAS-P visual analogue scale for pain