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Table 4 Characteristics and findings of included studies on upright motor control test measurement properties

From: Measurement properties of the upright motor control test for adults with stroke: a systematic review

Authors Participants Test component assessed Purpose of test application Validity Clinical utility
Joa et al. [43] 124 adults with subacute and chronic strokes (56 F; 73 ischemic stroke; 68 left hemiplegia) Age = 53.9 (SD 15.4) yr 66 community walkers; 58 household walkers Knee Extension, Knee Flexion To test voluntary control of hemiparetic lower limb Criterion validity (diagnostic accuracy) assessed Subtests predictive of community-level ambulation versus home-level ambulation • Score of 3 (Strong score) for either Knee Extension or Knee Flexion predicted community ambulation • Score of 1 or 2 (Weak or Moderate score) for both Knee Extension and Knee Flexion predicted household ambulation Sensitivity, specificity, and AUC for identifying restriction in community ambulation • UMCT alone: 98 %, 67 %, and 0.829 • UMCT combined with Korean BBS: 81 %, 93 %, and 0.875 • UMCT combined with gait velocity: 89 %, 91 %, and 0.904 • UMCT combined with Korean BBS and gait velocity: 80 %, 94 %, and 0.876 Does not require equipment Takes approximately 1 min to complete (each test)
Perry et al. [44] 147 adults with subacute and chronic strokes (79 F; different etiologies; 79 left hemiplegia) Age = 55.5 (SD 12.2) yr 78 community walkers; 69 household walkers All 6 components of Extension Control Test and Flexion Control Test To test functional muscle strength of hemiparetic lower limb Criterion validity (predictive validity) assessed Composite scores not significantly different across 6 functional walking categories Scores on Knee Extension and Knee Flexion predictive of community-level ambulation versus home-level ambulation • 78 % accuracy, 78 % agreement • Score of 3 (Strong score) for either Knee Extension or Knee Flexion predicted community ambulation • Score of 1 or 2 (Weak or Moderate score) for both Knee Extension and Knee Flexion predicted household ambulation • Knee Extension subtest combined with gait velocity: 87 % agreement with expert clinicians in differentiating between community ambulators and household ambulators • Score of 3 (Strong score) for Knee Extension with gait velocity of at least 16 m/min predicted community ambulation • Scores of 1 and 2 (Moderate and Weak scores) for Knee Extension with gait velocities lower than 32 m/min and 24 m/min respectively predicted household ambulation No specific information provided
Mercer et al. [45] 33 adults with subacute stroke (15 F; 23 left hemiplegia); 25 completing all 6 testing sessions Age = 58.73 (SD 17.27) yr Baseline FMA lower limb motor scale score = 17.82 (SD 6.22) Knee Extension To test voluntary control of hemiparetic lower limb Construct validity (convergent validity) assessed Positive correlations between Knee Extension scores and paretic-limb peak vertical GRF (pseudo R2) • 0.34, during stepping with non-paretic limb • 0.22, during diagonal reach task • 0.21 = during sit-to-stand task Easily administered in a variety of clinical settings
  1. AUC area under the received operator characteristic curve, BBS Berg Balance Scale, FMA Fugl-Meyer Assessment, GRF ground reaction force, ST Step Test, UMCT Upright Motor Control Test