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Table 4 Characteristics and findings of included studies on upright motor control test measurement properties

From: Measurement properties of the upright motor control test for adults with stroke: a systematic review

Authors Participants Test component assessed Purpose of test application Validity Clinical utility
Joa et al. [43] 124 adults with subacute and chronic strokes (56 F; 73 ischemic stroke; 68 left hemiplegia)
Age = 53.9 (SD 15.4) yr
66 community walkers; 58 household walkers
Knee Extension, Knee Flexion To test voluntary control of hemiparetic lower limb Criterion validity (diagnostic accuracy) assessed
Subtests predictive of community-level ambulation versus home-level ambulation
• Score of 3 (Strong score) for either Knee Extension or Knee Flexion predicted community ambulation
• Score of 1 or 2 (Weak or Moderate score) for both Knee Extension and Knee Flexion predicted household ambulation
Sensitivity, specificity, and AUC for identifying restriction in community ambulation
• UMCT alone: 98 %, 67 %, and 0.829
• UMCT combined with Korean BBS: 81 %, 93 %, and 0.875
• UMCT combined with gait velocity: 89 %, 91 %, and 0.904
• UMCT combined with Korean BBS and gait velocity: 80 %, 94 %, and 0.876
Does not require equipment
Takes approximately 1 min to complete (each test)
Perry et al. [44] 147 adults with subacute and chronic strokes (79 F; different etiologies; 79 left hemiplegia)
Age = 55.5 (SD 12.2) yr
78 community walkers; 69 household walkers
All 6 components of Extension Control Test and Flexion Control Test To test functional muscle strength of hemiparetic lower limb Criterion validity (predictive validity) assessed
Composite scores not significantly different across 6 functional walking categories
Scores on Knee Extension and Knee Flexion predictive of community-level ambulation versus home-level ambulation
• 78 % accuracy, 78 % agreement
• Score of 3 (Strong score) for either Knee Extension or Knee Flexion predicted community ambulation
• Score of 1 or 2 (Weak or Moderate score) for both Knee Extension and Knee Flexion predicted household ambulation
Knee Extension subtest combined with gait velocity: 87 % agreement with expert clinicians in differentiating between community ambulators and household ambulators
• Score of 3 (Strong score) for Knee Extension with gait velocity of at least 16 m/min predicted community ambulation
• Scores of 1 and 2 (Moderate and Weak scores) for Knee Extension with gait velocities lower than 32 m/min and 24 m/min respectively predicted household ambulation
No specific information provided
Mercer et al. [45] 33 adults with subacute stroke (15 F; 23 left hemiplegia); 25 completing all 6 testing sessions
Age = 58.73 (SD 17.27) yr
Baseline FMA lower limb motor scale score = 17.82 (SD 6.22)
Knee Extension To test voluntary control of hemiparetic lower limb Construct validity (convergent validity) assessed
Positive correlations between Knee Extension scores and paretic-limb peak vertical GRF (pseudo R2)
• 0.34, during stepping with non-paretic limb
• 0.22, during diagonal reach task
• 0.21 = during sit-to-stand task
Easily administered in a variety of clinical settings
  1. AUC area under the received operator characteristic curve, BBS Berg Balance Scale, FMA Fugl-Meyer Assessment, GRF ground reaction force, ST Step Test, UMCT Upright Motor Control Test