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Table 3 Back-PAQ items score before and after the spinal pain management module

From: Changes in physiotherapy students’ beliefs and attitudes about low back pain through pre-registration training

Question Bsc-2 pre-module Bsc-2 post-module Mean difference 95%CI
Mean SD Mean SD   
8) Good posture is important to protect your back 4.00 1.17 1.95 1.30 2.05 1.74 – 2.35
5) Lifting without bending the knees is not safe for your back 3.08 1.59 1.20 0.72 1.88 1.58 – 2.18
11) You could injure your back if you are not careful 3.62 1.22 1.74 1.04 1.88 1.60 – 2.16
6) It is easy to injure your back 3.10 1.46 1.53 0.93 1.57 1.27 – 1.87
22) If you ignore back pain, you may cause damage to your back 3.55 1.15 2.04 1.32 1.51 1.20 – 1.81
9) If you overuse your back, it will wear out 2.85 1.29 1.65 1.05 1.20 0.91 – 1.49
a28) Most back pain settles quickly, at least enough to get on with normal activities 2.67 1.18 1.48 0.89 1.19 0.94 – 1.44
24) To effectively treat back pain you need to know exactly what is wrong 3.14 1.37 2.01 1.44 1.13 0.79 – 1.47
a29) Worrying about your back can delay recovery from back pain 2.31 1.05 1.28 0.61 1.03 0.82 – 1.24
a1) Your back is one of the strongest parts of your body 2.13 1.24 1.13 0.35 1.00 0.78 – 1.23
a3) Bending your back is good for it 2.07 1.26 1.13 0.36 0.94 0.71 – 1.16
33) There is a high chance that an episode of back pain will not resolve 2.58 1.22 1.67 1.01 0.90 0.63 – 1.18
14) A twinge in your back can be the first sign of a serious injury 2.57 1.22 1.76 1.17 0.81 0.52 – 1.10
7) It is important to have strong muscles to support your back 4.37 1.01 3.56 1.45 0.81 0.50 – 1.12
23) It is important to see a health professional when you have back pain 3.99 0.98 3.19 1.40 0.80 0.51 – 1.10
a30) Focussing on things other than your back helps you to recover from back pain 2.36 0.98 1.60 0.83 0.76 0.54 – 0.98
12) You can injure your back and only become aware of the injury sometime later 4.22 0.99 3.48 1.43 0.74 0.44 – 1.04
4) Sitting is bad for your back 2.42 1.20 1.69 1.14 0.73 0.44 – 1.02
10) If an activity or movement causes back pain, you should avoid it in the future 2.08 1.03 1.40 0.89 0.68 0.45 – 0.92
a2) Your back is well designed for the way you use it in daily life 1.71 0.96 1.08 0.37 0.63 0.46 – 0.81
a31) Expecting your back pain to get better helps you to recover from back pain 2.23 1.05 1.70 1.15 0.53 0.26 – 0.80
a17) When you have back pain, you can do things which increase your pain without harming the back 1.90 0.99 1.41 0.88 0.49 0.26 – 0.72
32) Once you have had back pain there is always a weakness 1.71 0.89 1.23 0.70 0.48 0.28 – 0.67
26) When you have back pain the risks of vigorous exercise outweigh the benefits 2.15 1.10 1.68 1.07 0.47 0.21 – 0.74
19) It is worse to have pain in your back than your arms or legs 3.24 1.25 2.81 1.47 0.43 0.10 – 0.76
20) It is hard to understand what back pain is like if you have never had it yourself 3.98 1.04 3.55 1.39 0.42 0.12 – 0.72
13) Back pain means that you have injured your back 1.58 0.91 1.19 0.60 0.40 0.21 – 0.58
18) Having back pain makes it difficult to enjoy life 4.14 1.00 3.75 1.25 0.39 0.11 – 0.66
a15) Thoughts and feelings can influence the intensity of back pain 1.28 0.50 1.03 0.17 0.25 0.16 – 0.34
34) Once you have a back problem, there is not a lot you can do about it 1.26 0.57 1.03 0.22 0.23 0.12 – 0.33
a16) Stress in your life (financial, work, relationship) can make back pain worse 1.26 0.52 1.07 0.26 0.19 0.09 – 0.29
a27) If you have back pain you should try to stay active 1.19 0.48 1.02 0.12 0.17 0.09 – 0.26
25) If you have back pain you should avoid exercise 1.24 0.58 1.09 0.31 0.16 0.04 – 0.27
21) If your back hurts, you should take it easy until the pain goes away 1.76 0.94 1.66 1.19 0.10 −0.16 – 0.36
  1. The items are ordered from the largest change during the module to smallest change. Lowest scores at associated with more helpful beliefs (1 = false and 5 = true). a scores are reversed for items worded in the reverse direction so that a lower score also indicates that the helpful belief is more strongly held